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Research on teacher thinking. Craft, A. Creativity in education. Cremin, T. Pedagogy and possibility thinking in the early years. Darling-Hammond, L.

Dawe, H. The practice of everyday life. Original work published Eisner, E. The art and craft of teaching.

Erickson, F. Wilkinson Ed. Ericsson, K. The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Gardner, H. Five minds for the future. Haworth, L. Hill, J. Housner, L. Ingersoll, R. Joubert, M. Craft, B. Leibling Eds. Leinhardt, G. The cognitive skill of teaching.

Mayer, R. Should there be a three-strikes rule against pure discovery learning? The case for guided methods of instruction. McLaren, P.

Mehan, H. Learning lessons. Bos, H. Holtappels Eds. Olson, D. Psychological theory and educational reform.

Palincsar, A. Social constructivist perspectives on teaching and learning. Spence, J. Foss Eds. Park-Fuller, L. Partnership for 21st Century Skills.

The intellectual and policy foundations of the 21st century skills framework. Pineau, E. Rogoff, B. Cognition as a collaborative process.

Siegler Eds. Rubin, L. Artistry in teaching. Sarason, S. Teaching as a performing art. Sawyer, R. Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences.

The new science of learning. New York: Basic Books. Shavelson, R. Smith, R. Is teaching really a performing art? Timpson, W. Torrance, E.

Interscholastic futuristic creative problem solving. Trilling, B. Yinger, R. Routines in teacher planning. A study of teacher planning.

By this I mean that we should liken teaching to other explicitly improvisational professions such as unscripted theater and jazz music, where conscious efforts are made to develop improvisational expertise, and where a body of knowledge has been built up for doing so.

This reconceptualization of teacher expertise will be an important move toward supporting the kinds of teaching that are needed to meet the demands of our society in the twenty-first century.

The assertion that good teaching involves improvisation is a statement of the obvious to any experienced classroom teacher.

But improvisation has rarely been an explicit part of conversations about teaching, and because we do not talk much about our improvisation, we limit our ability as a profession to advance our knowledge and capacity for improvising well.

Unlike other improvisational professions, we do not have a well-elaborated, shared notion of what constitutes excellent improvisation, nor do we know much about how teachers learn to improvise or what teacher educators can do to facilitate that learning.

Yet, as I explain later in the chapter, many scholars In R. This chapter focuses on teacher education because these programs are important sites for conversations about teaching; this is where we can pass on to our next generation of teachers ideas about what we hope teaching will be.

I identify two barriers to the reconceptualization of teaching as disciplined improvisation. First, I show that few teacher educators have thought systematically about the role of improvisation in teaching or have adopted it as a learning goal for their students.

Second, I argue that teacher education students do not naturally come to the view that teaching should be improvisational, due to certain deeply held, culturally based beliefs about teaching that I identify in this chapter.

To overcome these two barriers, I describe how familiar methods in teacher education can be easily adapted for the purpose of helping future teachers understand the improvisational nature of teaching.

I begin the chapter by explaining the importance of an improvisational view of teaching to the educational needs of the twenty-first century.

I then discuss what we can expect to gain by viewing teaching as not just improvisational, but as professionally improvisational.

Next, I examine how improvisation currently figures in conversations within teacher education, as evidenced by a content analysis of methods textbooks; this content analysis helps us understand why the improvisational dimension of teaching may be less obvious to pre-service teachers than it is to those with experience in the classroom.

In the final section of the chapter, I propose strategies that teacher educators can use to help their students think productively and professionally about the improvisation that teachers do.

I join with other authors in the volume in arguing for a new conception of teacher expertise that includes expertise in improvisation.

However, I focus on teacher expertise as seen not through the eyes of scholars but through the eyes of pre-service teachers. I examine the tension between teaching viewed as a form of professional improvisation and the planning-centric view of teaching that teacher education students often bring to their programs, and that those programs implicitly reinforce.

I address this tension by presenting strategies for moving pre-service teachers away from a view of teaching as desirably scripted toward a view of teaching as desirably improvisational.

Like many authors, I use the improvisational metaphor to analyze teacher expertise. As Sawyer points out , this volume , this metaphor has limits, because there are important ways in which the aims and circumstances of teaching differ from those of artistic performance.

In this chapter, my assertion is that the key feature that teaching should share with jazz music and theatrical improvisation, although it currently does not, is the availability of an explicitly held and deliberately taught body of knowledge about how to successfully improvise in order to accomplish the intended aims of the profession.

It is my hope that this chapter and this volume will serve as catalysts for the development of explicit professional knowledge for improvisational teaching.

The schooling needs of the knowledge society, however, are different from those of an industrial society. To prepare our young people to participate in the knowledge society, we need to develop more than just their factual knowledge base.

In addition, students need to have many experiences involving collaborative work. In these respects, schooling for the knowledge society rests firmly on a constructivist vision of teaching.

Constructivist learning theory views learning as a process in which individuals construct new knowledge by reorganizing their existing knowledge in light of experiences that challenge their present understandings.

Whereas constructivism is a descriptive theory of the learning process, and therefore makes no prescriptions for teaching, there is a wealth of scholarship that considers how we might leverage a constructivist understanding of learning in order to optimize the teaching process.

Specific recommendations vary across content areas, but there are some general features that have emerged as hallmarks of constructivist-based teaching Richardson, ; Windschitl, To begin, the core idea behind constructivist-inspired teaching is that students should be placed in situations that challenge their prior conceptions and press them to develop more sophisticated ones.

To do this successfully, teachers need lots of opportunities to find out what and how students are thinking, and this in turn means that instructional time should involve a great deal of teacher-student interaction.

Improvisation is implicated in constructivist-based teaching in a number of ways. This will depend on how they connect Professional Improvisation and Teacher Education 31 the new aspects of the lesson to their prior knowledge.

Teachers must make instructional decisions on the fly, based on careful observation and diagnosis of student thinking.

Although Simon observed this teaching cycle in the context of a mathematics classroom, the basic features of the teaching process he describes would hold for constructivist-based teaching in other disciplines.

Based on this hypothesis, the teacher selects learning goals for the lesson and chooses activities designed to accomplish these goals.

Then, as the teacher interacts with and observes students during the lesson, two things happen simultaneously and continuously. At the same time, the teacher observes what is happening in the interactions and assesses student thinking.

Based on these assessments, she modifies her hypothetical learning trajectory, which in turn requires modification of the immediate learning goals and activities.

To develop new, more sophisticated ways of thinking, students need opportunities to encounter the limitations of their existing understandings, to actively work with unfamiliar ideas, and to generate and explore new possibilities for their own thought.

This is not just a matter of providing activities in which students can improvise new understandings, but also of establishing certain social and intellectual norms in the classroom.

On this view, the aim of teaching should not be simply for individual students to do individual thinking, but rather for students to engage in conceptual interchange with their peers and their teacher.

Through collaborative dialogue, students work collectively toward more robust understandings. The flow of the lesson needs to be collaboratively determined, perhaps guided in strategic ways by the teacher, but at the same time necessarily emergent from the interactive give-and-take between teacher and students and between students and each other.

It is important for teachers to think of teaching as improvisational so that they do not attempt to control too tightly the flow of the lesson; this would circumvent the co-construction process Sawyer, Teaching improvisationally emphasizes knowledge generation rather than knowledge acquisition.

For example, Kelley, Brown, and Crawford argue that teaching improvisationally is crucial in science education because students need to experience science as a process rather than as a product.

This same principle holds for other subjects as well. In descriptions of constructivist-based teaching, the themes of teacher flexibility and responsiveness appear frequently.

Second, considering teaching in terms of improvisation can help teachers think not only about their own responsiveness and flexibility, but also about generating successful student improvisation and effective collaboration between teachers and students.

Third, thinking of teaching as improvisation may be more productive within teacher education than simply asserting that teachers need to be flexible and responsive.

Telling someone to be responsive is not very useful; professional improvisation is a valuable model because improvisers in jazz and theater are taught exactly how to be flexible and responsive.

Teaching Improvisation as Professional Improvisation For the previously outlined reasons, it is important that we begin to attend explicitly to the improvisational nature of teaching.

Simply becoming aware that teaching is improvisational is not enough, however. When seen from the perspective of constructivist learning theory and the educational demands of the knowledge society, improvisation is not something that is incidental in teaching; it is central, and therefore we need to focus our efforts on doing it expertly.

We need to think of ourselves as professional, rather than incidental, improvisers. Consider what might be gained for the teaching profession if we begin to think of ourselves as professional improvisers.

To begin, seeing ourselves as professional improvisers creates an imperative to take our improvisation seriously, to attend to our successes and failures, and to strategize about how to improvise better.

Further, viewing teaching as an improvisational profession will lead to the development of a body of professional knowledge to support our improvisation.

Established improvisation communities such 34 DeZutter as jazz music and unscripted acting have well-elaborated, shared notions of what constitutes successful improvisation, from which are derived clear learning goals for newcomers and accompanying techniques for helping learners accomplish those goals.

Improv actors have a detailed set of criteria for evaluating the success of a performance. As this list suggests, alongside an elaborated vision of what constitutes successful improv comes a vocabulary that provides a shorthand for talking about the components of that success and for talking about failures.

These things then translate into learning goals for those who are new to the profession. These guidelines reflect the accumulated wisdom of the community about what works to make a satisfying experience for the audience.

And because the guidelines are teachable, they prevent newcomers from having to create from scratch the strategies and skills needed for success.

No one expects novice actors to be good at improv right away. Over its sixty-year Professional Improvisation and Teacher Education 35 history, the improv community has developed a wealth of methods for teaching improv acting, and the great improv teachers such as Paul Sills and Del Close are venerated as much, if not more, than the great performers.

Methods books for teaching improv abound e. Similar types of knowledge can be found in the jazz community; see Berliner, We need a similar body of knowledge in the teaching profession, including a well-elaborated vision of good improvisational teaching, a shared vocabulary, learning goals for new teachers, and accompanying techniques for developing improvisational ability.

One way to make progress toward these ends is to mine the wisdom of other improvisational communities. Several scholars have already begun work of this type.

Improv actors use games and other frameworks as scaffolds for successful improvisational performances. Such structures impose parameters within which the improvisation occurs, and this serves to cut down to a manageable range the amount of improvisation necessary to produce a coherent performance.

Sawyer suggests that teachers need to design classroom activities with a similar idea in mind. Activities need to allow students intellectual space to construct their own knowledge while at the same time scaffolding the construction process.

Sawyer 36 DeZutter also notes that it will be helpful to train teachers in some of the techniques used by theatrical improvisers.

There are a few such efforts currently underway. The work of Sawyer, Donmeyer, and Lobman demonstrates the value in attending to the knowledge for improvisation found in the theater community.

There is also some interesting work using insights from dance improvisation; see Fournier, this volume. However, drawing wisdom from other improvisational professions should not be our only strategy.

As Sawyer notes, the demands of teaching in a K school differ significantly from the demands of creating a performance in the arts.

If we are to advance the ability of the teaching profession to improvise, we will need to develop a vision, a vocabulary, and pedagogical techniques that are specific to teaching.

Indeed, that is where much of the current scholarship on teaching-as-improvisation will likely lead. At the same time, though, we need to engage in a parallel effort that will establish an audience for such scholarship, and extend the conversation about improvisation to others besides education scholars.

We need to take steps to help teachers understand why such scholarship matters, why it is important to understand teaching as improvisational, and why we should strive to improvise well.

Textbooks offer a reasonable proxy for the topics that are included in teacher education classes because to be adopted, a textbook must present the ideas Professional Improvisation and Teacher Education 37 and concepts that teacher educators deem important.

I analyzed fourteen general-methods texts see Table 2. All generalmethods texts texts not focused on a particular grade level or content area were included, except for one text from Cengage that could not be acquired at the time of the study.

Texts devoted only to a single aspect of teaching, such as classroom management, were not included. The textbooks I examined treat constructivism in a variety of ways.

Several e. Others mention constructivism only long enough to link it to other terms or ideas that are used more frequently.

Still others e. It would be reasonable, then, to expect these texts to deal with teacher improvisation as a necessary feature of teaching that accomplishes such aims.

In a discussion of differences between expert and novice teachers, in which they cite Borko and Livingston , see below , Ornstein and Lasley explain, Experts engage in a good deal of intuitive and improvisational teaching.

They begin with a simple plan or outline and fill in the details as the teaching-learning process unfolds.

The act of teaching 5th ed. Another text, Frieberg and Driscoll , includes a section on using theatrical improvisation as a teaching technique but does not mention or suggest that improvisation should be an integral part of every teaching process.

In fact, the presence of this section may contribute to an impression that improvisation is not a normal part of teaching, but rather a special technique to be employed only in certain situations.

I then examined the possibility that teaching-as-improvisation is present in these texts, even though the term is not used. Even though all of the texts give at least passing nods to concepts such as teacher flexibility, responsiveness, and in-the-moment revision of plans, the lack of sustained discussion of such issues, accompanied by an emphasis on detailed lesson planning and vignettes of teaching in which the improvisational elements are not made salient, means that readers new to the profession are unlikely to take away the message that teaching is necessarily and always improvisational.

Student reactions may make it necessary or desirable to elaborate on something included in the plan or to pursue something unexpected that arises as the lesson proceeds.

Topics that we might expect to be associated 40 DeZutter with teacher improvisation, such as attending to individual student needs, teaching students with differing rates of learning, and accounting for diverse student backgrounds, tend to be addressed with advice on how lessons should be planned, and that advice rarely includes planning for improvisational teaching.

All of the texts do at least mention that lesson plans must at times be revised on the fly, but there is an absence of sustained discussion about the necessary give-and-take between pre-lesson work and during-the-lesson decision making.

But the vignettes and case studies presented in these books rarely demonstrate the improvisational essence of teaching.

Such descriptions also create the sense that the teacher is the only one who is shaping the direction of the lesson, because it is almost never made explicit that the flow of the lesson emerges from collaborative classroom dialogue.

These books do not show pre-service teachers the essential improvisational nature of teaching. And we know that pre-service teachers do not start teacher education programs with improvisational beliefs about teaching.

This is done chiefly by telling the information to the students. In one interesting example of research on this issue, Weber and Mitchell asked children, pre-service teachers, and practicing teachers to draw a picture of a teacher.

Weber and Mitchell concluded that this traditional image was widespread among not only pre-service Professional Improvisation and Teacher Education 41 teachers but most people in our culture p.

Students, if depicted, were shown sitting passively, in orderly rows, eyes on the teacher. This experiment reveals the dominant image of teaching that teacher education students bring with them to their education classes.

Indeed, such transmissionist views have been shown to conflict with the learning of constructivist-based principles of teaching.

It makes sense under the transmission model to depict a teacher speaking in the front of a classroom to a group of silent or invisible students.

It makes far less sense, however, to depict a teacher this way under a constructivist-inspired model of teaching. From a constructivist perspective, the act of teaching cannot be depicted without including the students in the image, because the intellectual activity of the students is what is important.

Such beliefs often act as a barrier to accurately understanding constructivistinspired approaches to teaching, and will very likely also be a barrier to inferring the improvisational nature of teaching.

From the transmissionist perspective, there is little reason for improvisation in teaching. Rather, planning exactly what the teacher will say and do during a lesson, even down to 42 DeZutter the minute details, seems advisable to ensure that all the important ideas get said and in the right order.

If new teachers understand the value of improvisational teaching to student learning, they are more likely to plan for improvisation instead of planning a script.

If they learn to think critically about the role of improvisation in teaching and to reflect on their own successes and failures in improvisation, they will become better classroom improvisers, and therefore, better teachers.

In addition, such conversations may generate a demand for more scholarly work on teaching as improvisation, which can then be incorporated into teacher education, further advancing the cause of excellence in improvisational teaching.

I would like to see improvisation addressed directly and substantively in forthcoming teacher education textbooks, but in the absence of such discussions, teacher educators should fill in the gaps by exploring the topic with their students.

Bringing Improvisation into Conversations within Teacher Education For guidance on incorporating conversations about improvisation into teacher education, we can turn first to the already well-developed body of literature on addressing teaching beliefs in teacher education.

As suggested by the earlier discussion, the initial step in helping pre-service teachers understand the role of improvisation in teaching will be to address their assumptions about the teaching-learning process, some of which may conflict with the idea that effective teaching involves successful improvisation.

Asking students to articulate and examine their beliefs about teaching helps them be more deliberate learners as they encounter new, challenging ideas, and it sets the stage for the career-long reflective consideration of the teachinglearning process that many teacher education programs strive to foster.

The skillful teacher educator will listen carefully to the notions of teaching that her students express and then find ways to link those notions to the ideas she hopes they will come to understand.

Such activities can be used as opportunities to open conversations about the improvisational nature of teaching as well.

Blumenfeld, Hicks, and Kracjik suggest that lesson-planning activities, which are a mainstay of methods courses, can be an important site for students to articulate and examine beliefs about the relationship between particular pedagogical choices and student learning.

Woolfolk Hoy and Murphy note that having students write philosophies of learning can be a valuable tool for unearthing assumptions.

Students can be asked to revise these at later points in their preparation, and can thereby track the evolution of their beliefs.

Such themes can then be included in the discussions that arise around these activities, so that students not only begin to unearth their assumptions relating to teacher improvisation, but also begin to learn that improvisation is an important issue in teaching.

Programs that address beliefs only briefly or in a piecemeal fashion are unlikely to be effective in moving students toward robust, research-based understandings.

Thus, conversations about the improvisational nature of teaching should be integrated throughout a teacher education program as well, so that teacher education students have multiple, recurring opportunities to reflect on this aspect of their teaching beliefs.

In inviting pre-service teachers to think about teaching as improvisation, teacher educators can expect to encounter certain challenges. I have mentioned that transmissionist beliefs held by many pre-service teachers are likely to create difficulties for thinking about teaching as improvisation, because teaching understood as transmission seems to require scripting more than improvising.

Lortie makes the point that upon entering a teacher education program, pre-service teachers have had twelve or more years of observing teaching from the vantage point of the student.

As apprentice observers, people gain many images of teachers that they carry into preparation programs, but these images only include the parts of teaching a student can see.

Teacher planning and on-the-fly decision making are mostly invisible to the student, and this masks the nature of teaching as skilled improvisation.

From the student perspective, routines and order are salient, but improvisation is not Labaree, The aim is not just that they understand that teaching is improvisational, but that they begin to think of themselves as professional improvisers who are deliberate about developing and employing improvisational skill.

Attaining this understanding is likely to be difficult, because teacher education students are not likely to have a well-developed sense of what might constitute improvisational excellence or what might be involved in achieving it.

Along with the other authors represented in this book, I argue that teacher educators can make an analogy to other professional improvisational communities, although this will require more than simply pointing out the commonalities between teaching and, for example, theatrical improvisation.

It is not obvious that professional improv performers engage in substantial training and preparation to become successful at their craft.

Therefore, teacher educators might ask students to consider such questions as what might be involved in learning to improvise at a professional level and what kinds of knowledge professional improvisers draw on.

It may even be useful to have students investigate some of the many books available on learning to improvise, and ask them to draw their own analogies between the skills explored in those texts and the skills involved in teaching.

In addition, narrative case studies are a common feature in methods texts. By discussing these examples of teaching with their peers and their professors, education students learn to think analytically about teaching, which is an important step toward becoming a professional educator.

As a part of these conversations, students should be invited to think about improvisation. When discussing their own teaching experiences, students can be asked about the role of improvisation in their teaching, and challenged to consider ways to make their teaching more successfully improvisational.

When discussing observations and case studies, the role of improvisation may be less apparent, and so it may be useful for teacher educators to pose questions that will make this more salient.

For example, a video case study can be paused to ask the viewers what the teacher is likely thinking about at a given moment and how she might respond to different contingencies, or to brainstorm about many possible directions in which the lesson may go depending on student responses.

Cases can also be evaluated in terms of what kinds of improvisational demands were placed on students What sort of knowledge construction opportunities were present?

In addition to including improvisation in discussions of examples of teaching, it should also be included in discussions of lesson planning.

Borko and Livingston established that experienced teachers teach more improvisationally than novices do because experienced teachers have more highly integrated knowledge structures relating to pedagogical strategies and content knowledge.

This finding cautions us that to some degree, improvisational skill may be a function of classroom experience. On the other hand, this work has implications for how we teach new teachers to plan their lessons.

Specifically, it might be valuable for teacher education students to consider what it means to plan to improvise.

Professional Improvisation and Teacher Education 47 In addition, teachers may wish to attend more to the design of activities than to predetermining the flow of a lesson; this would help them attend to what kinds of explorations students will be supported to do.

As constructivist approaches to teaching emphasize, in order to build deep, conceptual understandings, students need opportunities for supported intellectual exploration.

Not only does teaching need to allow space for teachers to respond to evolving student thinking; it must be designed to allow teachers and students to improvise new understandings together.

Teachers need to be willing and effective improvisers, and this means that, as a profession, we must begin to explicitly examine the improvisation that we do.

The authors represented in this book are developing a body of knowledge for expert teaching improvisation that will parallel the kinds of knowledge found in other professional improvisation communities.

But at the same time as this work proceeds, we need to open the conversation about improvisational teaching to our next generation of teachers.

Future teachers will need to embrace improvisation as an important component in their professional work, and think deliberately and analytically about how to improvise better.

The idea that teaching is a form of professional improvisation may be a challenging one for many pre-service teachers, due to implicit transmissionist beliefs that make scripting a lesson seem more desirable than improvisation.

Therefore, it will be important for teacher educators to help future teachers unearth their assumptions about teaching, including those related to improvisation, and to create opportunities for them to develop more robust understandings of the teaching process and of why improvisation is central to it.

References Anderson, L. Sternberg Eds. Blumenfeld, P. Teaching educational psychology through instructional planning.

Bryan, L. Davis, B. Working through the regressive myths of constructivist pedagogy. Donmoyer, R. Pedagogical improvisation. Fishman, B.

Hargreaves, A. Holt-Reynolds, D. Personal history-based beliefs as relevant prior knowledge in course work.

What does the teacher do? Johnstone, K. Labaree, D. Life on the margins. Lobato, J. Initiating and eliciting in teaching: A reformulation of telling.

Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 36 2 , Lobman, C. Lortie, D. Folk psychology and folk pedagogy.

Torrance Eds. Patrick, H. Renninger, A. Learning as the focus of an educational psychology course.

Richardson, V. The role of attitudes and beliefs in learning to teach. Sikula, T. Guyton Eds. Constructivist pedagogy.

Firsthand learning through intent participation. Emergence in creativity and development. Educating for innovation.

Scardamalia, M. Siegler, R. Simon, M. Reconstructing mathematics pedagogy from a constructivist perspective. Spolin, V. Improvisation for the theater.

Strauss, S. Folk psychology, folk pedagogy, and their relations to subjectmatter knowledge. Torff, B. Horvath, Eds. Tudge, J.

Bruner, Eds. Wideen, M. Windschitl, M. Review of Educational Research, 72 2 , Woolfolk Hoy, A. Teaching educational psychology to the implicit mind.

Under the accountability agenda, teachers are required to measure and test students, to report using mandated standards and systems, and to teach in state sanctioned ways.

Under the creativity agenda, teachers are expected to act effortlessly, fluidly, to take risks, be adventurous, and to develop pedagogy and classroom creativity in order to develop their own knowledge and skills as creative professionals.

They are expected to develop creative learners who can succeed in a twenty-first-century economy that rewards creativity and innovation.

The accountability agenda makes it difficult for teachers to work more creatively. Teachers get overwhelmed by a constant barrage of accountability demands standards, tests, targets, and tables by government.

There is general agreement that governments are increasingly taking control of the teaching profession Alexander, Teachers are expected to perform in specific and regulated ways.

In contrast, the creativity agenda encourages teachers to take risks, be adventurous, and explore creativity themselves. Yet, what constitutes creativity in education remains ambiguous.

Whereas important research conducted a decade ago by Woods and Jeffrey identified how teachers cope with tensions surrounding In R.

The conflict between the creativity and accountability agendas in education causes tensions for teachers given the effect of all the tough talk of standards Ball, There is wide acceptance that teaching is a complex task involving a high degree of professional expertise see Sawyer, this volume.

In the United Kingdom, a government emphasis on creativity in learning has led to an expansion of artist-teacher partnerships.

In these partnerships, working professional artists visit the classroom for a limited time period and work side by side with the full-time teacher.

Partnerships have become a delivery model in education, which offers a forum for creative opportunities. There is a long history of collaborations between teachers and professional artists in participatory arts activities, both in schools and communities.

Models of practice in partnerships between artists and teachers vary considerably. However, effective partnerships between artists and teachers in schools suggest it is in the act of creativity itself that empowerment lies.

Teaching is a subtle and complex art, and successful teachers, like artists, view their work as a continuing process of reflection and learning.

These partnerships directly benefit students, but they also have the potential to indirectly benefit students by increasing teacher expertise.

For a partnership to work well, either for students or for teacher professional development, Wenger , p. Under these conditions, a collaborative partnership potentially can develop, where teachers and artists are engaged in a dialogue and are dialogic in their teaching.

For this to happen, they need to have time for thinking, to encourage and maintain ambiguity, and to share understanding concerning what they are doing and what this means within the community Galton, When teachers and artists collaborate, they often have different conceptions concerning the organization of space, material, and time in the classroom.

The visiting artist typically uses a more improvisational, openended approach, whereas the classroom teacher typically uses a more structured style.

Thus, these teacher-artist partnerships provide us with an opportunity to study the teaching paradox in action: How do these dyads resolve this paradox to balance the more unpredictable, improvisational approach of the visiting artist with the more predictable, normative, and accountable style of the teacher?

If this paradox can be resolved, the result would be improved teacher expertise; research tells us how important it is for teachers to alter traditional school boundaries of time and space to allow for unpredictable, rigorous, reflective, and improvisational teaching Jeffrey, This resonates with the notion of Nardone who considered the lived experience of improvisation to be a coherent synthesis of the body and mind engaged in both conscious and prereflective activity.

When teachers and artists work together, particularly over sustained periods, their tacit knowledge and practice can be examined, reflected on, shared, and new practices created.

From the outset of each performance, improvisers enter an artificial world of time in which reactions to the unfolding events of their tales must be immediate.

Furthermore, the consequences of their actions are irreversible. Few experiences are more deeply fulfilling. My goal is to understand how they resolve this tension to create a shared space for teaching that enables the emergence of improvisational forms of teaching.

What takes them from teaching together, independently and side by side, to coconstructing an emergent pedagogy?

I focus on two questions: When is it that artists enable teachers by working in classrooms?

When teachers and artists collaborate, their different conceptions of teaching and different paradigms of expertise must be resolved before they can construct an effective learning environment.

This examination sheds light on the teaching paradox because the visiting artist represents a more creative, improvisational end of the paradox, whereas the classroom teacher represents the more constrained, scripted end.

Artists, in contrast, are stereotypically presented and seen as artists or arts practitioners, professionals involved in cultural production.

The artist in education is frequently an outsider who comes into an education space and acts as a catalyst or challenger of learning and who provides ways of exploring the world which involve more sensory, immersive, and improvisatory rooted ways of working than are customary in classroom settings.

I conclude by generalizing from these specific examples to propose a set of necessary conditions that must be met to resolve the teaching paradox.

Pedagogic Partnerships and Teaching for Creativity For many years, schools have employed visiting professional artists, in music, dance and theater, to work in educational partnerships with teachers in schools.

In the years after this influential document was published, many subsequent government policies and advisory documents have indirectly increased the interest in artist partnerships with artists in schools.

The vision and the hope are that the learning of pupils, pedagogic practices of teachers, and schools as organizations will be changed by educational partnerships and the significance they have in school improvement.

The vision and number of educational partnerships was increased dramatically in the United Kingdom as a result of the policy initiative, Creative Partnerships a, b.

With more than , young people and more than 4, teacher-artist collaborations, partnerships are acknowledged to have great potential to enhance arts education and creative education in schools.

One goal is to help pupils learn more creatively. A second goal is to help teachers teach more creatively; a third is to help schools become more innovative organizations.

A fourth is to forge strong and sustained partnerships between schools and artists. This chapter provides evidence of how the teaching paradox is resolved in these collaborative pedagogic practices between teachers and artists working in partnership in schools.

The vision and hope here, in the light of these educational policy initiatives as well as CCE, ; NCSL, ; QCA, and Schools of Creativity [Creative Partnerships Prospectus for Schools September, ] , are that teachers will better learn how to resolve the teaching paradox: They will be stimulated and supported by sharing the spontaneous and unpredictable nature of working in collaborative practice with artists, where the teacher makes unpremeditated, spur-of-the-moment decisions, where a considerable degree of residual decision making occurs, where the acquired skills that are normally executed as a professional repertoire of teaching strategies are linked up with those of the artists to develop a new way of resolving the teaching paradox between advance planning and the real-time practice of classroom teaching.

Professional Relationships and the Spaces That Enable Teaching for Creativity When artists and teachers collaborate, the full complexity of teaching is affected.

Teachers and artists enter the partnership with different theories, beliefs, practices, questions, visions, and hopes. Thus the teaching paradox is played out visibly, in the social interaction between these two professionals.

There is strong evidence that artists use a more improvisational approach as they engage with students and teachers Loveless, ; Sefton-Green, Galton studied a group of artists with a successful track record of working in schools, not only including artists from traditional disciplines but also practitioners making regular use of various forms of information and communications technology ICT such as digital photographers and filmmakers.

There is no lack of evidence that artists motivate students, but there is little extant research that identifies what teachers learn about teaching while working with artists.

The metaphor of improvisation helps illuminate that creative learning is essentially polyphonic; it evolves not in a single line of action or thought, but in several strands and directions at once, not circumscribed by the tried and traditional, enabling risk to be borne or not, and in the face of this artists can adopt different stances and engage in different collaborative activities with teachers.

Improvisation is characterized by flexible, adaptive, responsive, and generative activity. Teaching, like improvisation, is framed conceptually and ethically, as well as temporally and spatially.

In the variability of preexisting pedagogic and artistic practices, teachers and artists engage in considerable risk taking when they work together.

Improvisational teaching is always negotiating the teaching paradox: It dances between planned, scripted, deliberate, conscious episodes, and opportunistic action that ensures spontaneity by yielding to the flow; its immediacy signifies improvisational characteristics in the synchronous moment-to-moment of creating a new pedagogic practice.

Research shows that visiting artists teach in a more improvisational manner. Can teachers learn from the emergence of these improvisational ways of teaching?

Teachers cultivate and draw on a repertoire of pedagogic strategies. Artists constantly try out new ideas or adapt old ones, often taking calculated risks in the act of teaching.

So, what happens when artists and teachers teach together? What happens in the fusion of their actions and thoughts, both of which are of equal interest to who they are and what they value?

How do these collaborations address the teaching paradox? Expert teachers use routines and activity structures in regulated i.

As the teacher unfolds this with his or her class, over time, perhaps within and beyond the lesson, the artist and teacher reveal a shared understanding of the sequence of improvised episodes.

Given any topic, it seems that individual teachers will choose different ways to introduce and different ways in which to sequence the episodes of teaching, even when they often make decisions about the order in which to cover sections of work, what to miss out, what to emphasize, and so on.

Teachers are often confronted with common misconceptions; their narratives, as interpreted by their students, are often responsible for introducing elements that run contrary to expectations.

For artists, the plot devised and the business of working differently is reflected by their different understandings of what has gone before.

This leads to the development of contextually situated problems and solutions that lead to new forms of creativity.

The co-construction of new ideas, topics, and contexts can lead to significant and distinctively different pedagogic practices.

This kind of improvisatory practice does not always appear in teacherartist partnerships. The peculiar paradox is that teachers are apparently being urged to collaborate more with artists when, in the present climate of accountability, there is less for them to collaborate on.

When differences in pedagogy between teachers and artists are not resolved, the teaching paradox is realized as a clash of pedagogic cultures Pringle, ; Galton, Similarly, in the work of Hall, Thomson, and Russell , the issues surrounding the clash between two cultures has also identified the need to develop shared principles and values so as to underpin the collaborative pedagogic practice that one hopes will emerge.

The first partnership I discuss is between Dorothy, a composer with twenty years of experience, and John, a teacher with twenty years of experience.

John is the Director of Performing Arts, a music teacher, conductor, and arranger. He has great respect for Dorothy because of the results she gets with his students.

I knew them both some considerable time before because he had been an enthusiast for some innovative curriculum development and she had been involved in making composition accessible and meaningful to students.

This is how Dorothy described the shared space of her pedagogic practice as the dialogic improvisation of teaching. I normally start with activities which open up and explore possibilities and communicate an openness to ideas in the ways we model collaborative action and a passion for the exploration of our own creative learning and teaching.

Everything evolves organically. And, I like to spend quite a bit of time before starting a project observing the classroom practice of the teachers involved.

This influences how I work. I try to promote a kind of fluid reflective practice which is a bit like researching your own practice.

I encourage risk taking and play and expect students to take responsibility for what they do. That is crucial.

I get them to work in a participatory way where exchanging ideas and experiences is expected also of the teachers. I do a lot of talking with the teacher during the sessions and engaging collaboratively.

I also have a lot of extended conversations long before and immediate after sessions and I make a big deal of shared dialogue during sessions with the teachers.

I think learners gain a lot of 62 Burnard understanding through this collaboration but through these exchanges and with students working along teachers.

Other common elements in their practice included allowing students choice and ownership of their learning, time for reflection, creating a stimulating environment, and, most importantly, modeling creative action within a genuine partnership.

John, the teacher, probes the reasons for the high levels of collaboration, mutual support, respect, and shared engagement; the reasons for selecting the tasks the artists ask students and teachers to undertake; and the kinds of outcomes on which he and Dorothy agree on and judge as successful.

Unusually, he separates learning and the act of teaching as a transaction taking place not only between the artist and students within the classroom but between the artist and teacher.

John said: To me, working with artists is about several things. I see, in the course of lesson and across a series of lessons, how they encompass, get students to explore their own ideas before going on to decide on the tasks and activities to be undertaken and about the particular tasks which move to imaginative playful spontaneous stuff then move to create something in response, working with them in different ways to create safe spaces for risk taking.

And another important thing is with the students. What I am trying to do here is to be a person who responds to ideas, just like the students; to come up with ideas and to bring our own reflections to share.

The students reflect on their learning and themselves as learners. So do I, but as their teacher I bring my own practice to the surface and share it with more spontaneity with the artist.

Just like Dorothy, I start with warm-up and release activities which open up and explore possibilities and communicate an openness to ideas.

Artists often resist describing their practice as teaching. In contrast, they often describe their pedagogic practice in the language of the teaching paradox: a dialogic improvisation between the fixed plans, repertoires, and routines, yielding to high levels of real-time decision making.

It is not uncommon for both teachers and artists to go through periods of uncertainty and discomfort as they negotiate this tension between different conceptions of the use of time, space, and resources in relation to how classroom and school procedures normally operate.

These principles overlay my pedagogic practice in schools. There are tensions and clearly risks attached for those engaged in the fluid nature of art-making processes.

The consequence of reflection, putting in breathing spaces and still points, and reflecting critically on what, why, and how we learn and how we work in partnership with teachers and students in schools can be 64 Burnard really tricky.

The effect of encouraging students to pursue a line of thinking may cause them to question or challenge the values and practices of their own teachers and that of the school can be seen as subversive.

Sometimes you just have to invite students to find the space and take the time to sit and think about it and try and reduce the perceived risk by the offer to think and encourage thinking together about alternative ways rather than just pursue one way to go about it.

So, they become the provider of information, or the police person. They very loosely guided the students on a very different, quite unspecified, learning journey to me.

I watched from the sidelines rather than participated. I know why a few of the students get upset. It can be very destabilizing for some students.

Confidences can take a real knock when tasks are high on ambiguity and therefore perceived as very risky. I just had to help out some students by showing specifically how to do things so they could achieve the set criteria that we are all used to.

They had all the talent but none of the critical elements that, for me, defines teaching like being The Improvisatory Space of Teaching 65 in control and which, for me, should play out like a fully orchestrated score.

The teaching paradox that arises in the partnership between artists and teachers can be complex and can give rise to a clash of confidence, as power relationships are forged and in some cases control relinquished to whose opinions count.

Artists can hold strong views about going with the flow whereas teachers often see themselves cast in the role of didact or policeman.

Pringle and Galton make similar points that artists can adopt creative and experimental pedagogic modes because generally they are free from curriculum constraints, whereas teachers are not always at liberty to do so.

In the context of the qualitative differences between artist and teacher pedagogies, Bernstein offers a framework which differentiates between pedagogies in terms of competence and performance.

In any given teaching session, performance models might include, as a core act of teaching, improvisational forms that, in-the-moment, promote learner independence and autonomy or require the teacher to spontaneously scaffold learning so as to help learners move forward in their learning.

Teachers are being pushed by two opposed agendas: They are being asked to promote creativity while at the same time meeting accountability targets measured by success in standardized tests.

The evidence from several studies is that there are many understandable tensions arising out of this paradox Cochrane, What kinds of pedagogic practices and partnerships have the potential to create better professional teacher practices?

First, we have strong evidence that artists work adaptively with and alongside teachers and students Galton, They work together improvisationally, as ideas are exchanged and built on dialogically Sawyer, Second, we have strong evidence that for the teachers, working with artists involves teaching in a variety of ways.

The artists tend to move between competence and performance pedagogies, splitting the focus between the learner, what the learner achieves, the teacher, and the performance of teaching.

Teachers tend to favor the performance models of pedagogy, which place the emphasis on clearly defined objectives and outputs; but having seen the effects of encouraging students to pursue different lines of thinking, to question and challenge the values and practices of past lessons, and the consequences of professional reflection, most of them increasingly come to understand that creative learning is not about getting a right or wrong outcome, but is a dance that is both improvised and choreographed.

As a result of the partnerships, teachers change how they approach the teaching paradox: They become more improvisational.

Being Improvisatory with the Other in Educational Partnerships What matters to teachers the most is how artists deploy their specialized knowledge in practice.

They view the artists as experts who are successful because of their superior knowledge of their subject matter honed through years of experience as performing artists.

Sawyer has applied these ideas to teaching as improvisation, particularly the capacity to adapt reflexively to learning environments.

Artists often prefer to think of their role as that of a creative facilitator who offers education projects out of schools in galleries, museums, the community such as village halls and churches, and other local phenomena.

Such spaces can offer the conditions necessary to support and nurture creativity in teaching and learning, and offer up new starting points, lines of inquiry, The Improvisatory Space of Teaching 67 and possibilities of specific places for engaging imaginative creative activity.

Artists and teachers develop unique pedagogic partnerships when they mesh understandings of how children encounter place and time differently in different contexts.

I look at things in a completely different way now. I think I now teach in a more creative way. I play. I now experiment with a revitalized sense of myself as an artist teacher and happily share my own compositions with my students.

I think of them as artists. I understand much more about the importance of being flexible and engaging the imagination and how to generate motivation and explore ideas while still working towards an outcome.

I feel a lot more confident about ways to achieve a balance between freedom and control in creativity and to navigate between being a teacher and student and shared negotiation in collaboration within the hierarchy of the school.

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Foto: Christoph Vogel Gestern feierten beide Diamantene Hochzeit. Winter Osterhofen. Seit 65 Jahren gehen die beiden nun schon gemeinsam durchs Leben, und dieser Anlass war auch Ihr Mann William will dafür sorgen, dass sie sich tadellos präsentiert - und sich in seiner Familie wohlfühlt Für Herzogin Catherine gab es seit ihrer Hochzeit mit Prinz William Sie fackelten nicht lange; war die Hochzeit.

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Otto Brecht arbeitete als Eine ganz normale türkische Hochzeit : Eine ehemalige Tennishalle mit geschmückten Tischen, gegrillte Hähnchen für Gäste, Goldreifen für die Braut, viel Musik und eine ausgelassene Stimmung.

Es ist nach 21 Uhr, als die Hochzeit skapelle In der Zwischenzeit hatte ich das vergessen", erzählte Joachim Weber aus Flemlingen.

Doch jetzt erinnere ihn die Wettervorhersage im Fernsehen Eigentlich hat sie einen Vertrag über acht Schmücken, putzen, Messe feiern Augsburger Allgemeine Sie arbeitete dort in der Gaststätte "Burghof" als Kellnerin.

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Es gibt jedoch This is less likely to happen in a classroom due to age, status, and expertise differences. The authors in this book argue that creative learning is more likely to occur when the rigid division between teacher and student is somewhat relaxed, creating an environment where teacher and students jointly construct the improvisational flow of the classroom.

Many chapters in this book argue that knowing a bit about how improvisation works in jazz and theater could help teachers creatively foster more effective learning.

Several chapters present examples from jazz or improv theater, and then identify exactly how those performers balance the tensions between structure and freedom, drawing lessons for practicing teachers.

Many of the chapters argue that teachers and students will benefit if they are taught how to participate in theater improvisations themselves.

Most major U. Thus, school districts might consider integrating improv activities in continuing professional development.

The improvisation metaphor leads to a new conception of professional expertise. Creative teachers are experts at disciplined improvisation, balancing the structures of curricula and their own plans and routines, with the constant need to improvisationally apply those structures.

In classrooms with expert teachers, students attain their learning outcomes more quickly and more thoroughly. Students gain a deeper conceptual understanding of the material and retain it longer.

The chapters are grouped according to which paradox is primary, although many of the chapters are relevant to more than one of these paradoxes.

The book concludes with an integrative discussion chapter by Lisa Barker and Hilda Borko. The Teacher Paradox The preceding brief summary of research on teacher expertise shows that experienced teachers have a larger repertoire of structures that they use in the classrooms, yet at the same time, they are more effective improvisers.

She begins by arguing that constructivist learning requires a learning environment in which students are given opportunities to improvise.

In her chapter, she conducted a content analysis of fourteen general-methods textbooks that are widely used in preservice teacher education programs.

She found, first of all, that all fourteen textbooks advocate constructivist learning theory. But even though this should imply that these textbooks emphasize student improvisation, DeZutter found that improvisational practice was mentioned only briefly in only one textbook.

Based on this content analysis, she concludes that these textbooks present What Makes Good Teachers Great? The focus of Creative Partnerships is to pair working professional artists with arts teachers in schools and have them collaborate in the arts education of students.

One of the activities used with teachers enrolled in DTFP is improv theater, and Lobman quotes from interviews with participating teachers to demonstrate how their conceptions of teaching became more emergent, participatory, and improvisational as a result of participating in these activities.

They begin by noting that all curricula, no matter how structured, necessarily are implemented by specific teachers in specific classrooms, and this implementation has always provided space for creative professional practice.

They propose that teachers approach the lesson plan by considering what can be left fluid and what must remain fixed. The challenge facing all teachers is getting the balance just right.

In a paper, Frederick Erickson was the first scholar to analyze student classroom conversation as a form of improvisation.

Two chapters analyze the use of improvisation with language learners. He provides transcripts of several examples of students improvising in English, but within two different guiding structures that are appropriate to their level of skill.

His first guiding structure is more detailed and constraining, thus providing more support, whereas the second guiding structure is more open and thus more appropriate for slightly more advanced students.

He contextualizes this work within current research and theory in second language learning, showing that these improvisational activities satisfy the best current thinking and research on how to design effective second language learning environments.

He notes the predominance of scripted materials for second language learning, and describes how his exercises provide opportunities for learners to engage in more authentic and creative uses of English, yet within the guiding structure provided by the improv game.

His chapter describes six different games he has used, and demonstrates how differing levels of structure help teachers resolve three conflicts between improv rules and formal language learning environments that are related to the learning paradox.

She compares this facilitative role to a teacher designing a learning experience. Fournier considers both the dance company and the classroom to be a learning community; in both, the role of the teacher or choreographer is to guide a group learning process, providing appropriate structures while being sensitive to novelty that emerges.

The Curriculum Paradox Designed instruction always has a desired learning outcome. Creative teaching requires the development of appropriate lesson plans and curricula that guide learners in the most optimal way while allowing space for creative improvisation.

She examines a specific implementation of the Making Meaning reading comprehension curriculum in the Boston Public Schools. Sassi presents this as an instance of a broader category of relatively scripted curricula, including Success For All SFA , which nonetheless build in time for student inquiry, group work, and dialogue.

Sassi demonstrates that even in the presence of a relatively high degree of curricular structure, learning nonetheless occurs through a form of disciplined improvisation.

Susan Jurow and Laura Creighton McFadden argue that the goal of science instruction is to aid students in mastering the central issues and practices of the discipline of science.

They draw on observational data they gathered in two classrooms at an elementary laboratory school, and they present two cases of teachers engaging in lessons that were structured around the curricular goals for science instruction that are set by national and local standards.

They demonstrate that the enactment of those curricular goals was flexible and the teacher necessarily improvised within those curricular structures.

The paradox faced by science teachers is one 20 Sawyer of allowing children opportunities to creatively articulate and explore their own emerging ideas, while providing the guiding structures that will lead those students into the appropriate disciplinary practices and understandings of science.

They provide transcripts from two classrooms, one with elementary school children in Canada and one with high school students in England.

Teaching in this way requires disciplined improvisation. And yet, schools are complex organizations with many structures and constraints; these structures serve important functions and cannot simply be abandoned.

Effective creative learning involves teachers and students improvising together, collaboratively, within the structures provided by the curriculum and the teachers.

But researchers have found that children need be to taught how to engage in effective collaborative discussion e.

The performing arts are fundamentally ensemble art forms. Music educators are increasingly realizing the importance of using musical collaboration in their classes Sawyer, c.

Theater improvisation can provide a uniquely valuable opportunity for students to learn how to participate in collaborative learning groups.

Many schools have already transformed their curricula to emphasize creative teaching. However, these transformations have often been occurring in the wealthiest countries and the wealthiest school districts, potentially leading to a knowledge society that is run by children of privilege.

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Bourdieu, P. Outline of a theory of practice. Bransford, J. Brown, M. Chi, M. The nature of expertise. Clark, C. Research on teacher thinking.

Craft, A. Creativity in education. Cremin, T. Pedagogy and possibility thinking in the early years.

Darling-Hammond, L. Dawe, H. The practice of everyday life. Original work published Eisner, E. The art and craft of teaching.

Erickson, F. Wilkinson Ed. Ericsson, K. The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Gardner, H. Five minds for the future. Haworth, L. Hill, J. Housner, L. Ingersoll, R. Joubert, M. Craft, B. Leibling Eds. Leinhardt, G.

The cognitive skill of teaching. Mayer, R. Should there be a three-strikes rule against pure discovery learning?

The case for guided methods of instruction. McLaren, P. Mehan, H. Learning lessons. Bos, H. Holtappels Eds. Olson, D.

Psychological theory and educational reform. Palincsar, A. Social constructivist perspectives on teaching and learning.

Spence, J. Foss Eds. Park-Fuller, L. Partnership for 21st Century Skills. The intellectual and policy foundations of the 21st century skills framework.

Pineau, E. Rogoff, B. Cognition as a collaborative process. Siegler Eds. Rubin, L. Artistry in teaching. Sarason, S. Teaching as a performing art.

Sawyer, R. Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences. The new science of learning. New York: Basic Books.

Shavelson, R. Smith, R. Is teaching really a performing art? Timpson, W. Torrance, E. Interscholastic futuristic creative problem solving.

Trilling, B. Yinger, R. Routines in teacher planning. A study of teacher planning. By this I mean that we should liken teaching to other explicitly improvisational professions such as unscripted theater and jazz music, where conscious efforts are made to develop improvisational expertise, and where a body of knowledge has been built up for doing so.

This reconceptualization of teacher expertise will be an important move toward supporting the kinds of teaching that are needed to meet the demands of our society in the twenty-first century.

The assertion that good teaching involves improvisation is a statement of the obvious to any experienced classroom teacher.

But improvisation has rarely been an explicit part of conversations about teaching, and because we do not talk much about our improvisation, we limit our ability as a profession to advance our knowledge and capacity for improvising well.

Unlike other improvisational professions, we do not have a well-elaborated, shared notion of what constitutes excellent improvisation, nor do we know much about how teachers learn to improvise or what teacher educators can do to facilitate that learning.

Yet, as I explain later in the chapter, many scholars In R. This chapter focuses on teacher education because these programs are important sites for conversations about teaching; this is where we can pass on to our next generation of teachers ideas about what we hope teaching will be.

I identify two barriers to the reconceptualization of teaching as disciplined improvisation. First, I show that few teacher educators have thought systematically about the role of improvisation in teaching or have adopted it as a learning goal for their students.

Second, I argue that teacher education students do not naturally come to the view that teaching should be improvisational, due to certain deeply held, culturally based beliefs about teaching that I identify in this chapter.

To overcome these two barriers, I describe how familiar methods in teacher education can be easily adapted for the purpose of helping future teachers understand the improvisational nature of teaching.

I begin the chapter by explaining the importance of an improvisational view of teaching to the educational needs of the twenty-first century.

I then discuss what we can expect to gain by viewing teaching as not just improvisational, but as professionally improvisational.

Next, I examine how improvisation currently figures in conversations within teacher education, as evidenced by a content analysis of methods textbooks; this content analysis helps us understand why the improvisational dimension of teaching may be less obvious to pre-service teachers than it is to those with experience in the classroom.

In the final section of the chapter, I propose strategies that teacher educators can use to help their students think productively and professionally about the improvisation that teachers do.

I join with other authors in the volume in arguing for a new conception of teacher expertise that includes expertise in improvisation.

However, I focus on teacher expertise as seen not through the eyes of scholars but through the eyes of pre-service teachers.

I examine the tension between teaching viewed as a form of professional improvisation and the planning-centric view of teaching that teacher education students often bring to their programs, and that those programs implicitly reinforce.

I address this tension by presenting strategies for moving pre-service teachers away from a view of teaching as desirably scripted toward a view of teaching as desirably improvisational.

Like many authors, I use the improvisational metaphor to analyze teacher expertise. As Sawyer points out , this volume , this metaphor has limits, because there are important ways in which the aims and circumstances of teaching differ from those of artistic performance.

In this chapter, my assertion is that the key feature that teaching should share with jazz music and theatrical improvisation, although it currently does not, is the availability of an explicitly held and deliberately taught body of knowledge about how to successfully improvise in order to accomplish the intended aims of the profession.

It is my hope that this chapter and this volume will serve as catalysts for the development of explicit professional knowledge for improvisational teaching.

The schooling needs of the knowledge society, however, are different from those of an industrial society.

To prepare our young people to participate in the knowledge society, we need to develop more than just their factual knowledge base.

In addition, students need to have many experiences involving collaborative work. In these respects, schooling for the knowledge society rests firmly on a constructivist vision of teaching.

Constructivist learning theory views learning as a process in which individuals construct new knowledge by reorganizing their existing knowledge in light of experiences that challenge their present understandings.

Whereas constructivism is a descriptive theory of the learning process, and therefore makes no prescriptions for teaching, there is a wealth of scholarship that considers how we might leverage a constructivist understanding of learning in order to optimize the teaching process.

Specific recommendations vary across content areas, but there are some general features that have emerged as hallmarks of constructivist-based teaching Richardson, ; Windschitl, To begin, the core idea behind constructivist-inspired teaching is that students should be placed in situations that challenge their prior conceptions and press them to develop more sophisticated ones.

To do this successfully, teachers need lots of opportunities to find out what and how students are thinking, and this in turn means that instructional time should involve a great deal of teacher-student interaction.

Improvisation is implicated in constructivist-based teaching in a number of ways. This will depend on how they connect Professional Improvisation and Teacher Education 31 the new aspects of the lesson to their prior knowledge.

Teachers must make instructional decisions on the fly, based on careful observation and diagnosis of student thinking.

Although Simon observed this teaching cycle in the context of a mathematics classroom, the basic features of the teaching process he describes would hold for constructivist-based teaching in other disciplines.

Based on this hypothesis, the teacher selects learning goals for the lesson and chooses activities designed to accomplish these goals.

Then, as the teacher interacts with and observes students during the lesson, two things happen simultaneously and continuously.

At the same time, the teacher observes what is happening in the interactions and assesses student thinking.

Based on these assessments, she modifies her hypothetical learning trajectory, which in turn requires modification of the immediate learning goals and activities.

To develop new, more sophisticated ways of thinking, students need opportunities to encounter the limitations of their existing understandings, to actively work with unfamiliar ideas, and to generate and explore new possibilities for their own thought.

This is not just a matter of providing activities in which students can improvise new understandings, but also of establishing certain social and intellectual norms in the classroom.

On this view, the aim of teaching should not be simply for individual students to do individual thinking, but rather for students to engage in conceptual interchange with their peers and their teacher.

Through collaborative dialogue, students work collectively toward more robust understandings. The flow of the lesson needs to be collaboratively determined, perhaps guided in strategic ways by the teacher, but at the same time necessarily emergent from the interactive give-and-take between teacher and students and between students and each other.

It is important for teachers to think of teaching as improvisational so that they do not attempt to control too tightly the flow of the lesson; this would circumvent the co-construction process Sawyer, Teaching improvisationally emphasizes knowledge generation rather than knowledge acquisition.

For example, Kelley, Brown, and Crawford argue that teaching improvisationally is crucial in science education because students need to experience science as a process rather than as a product.

This same principle holds for other subjects as well. In descriptions of constructivist-based teaching, the themes of teacher flexibility and responsiveness appear frequently.

Second, considering teaching in terms of improvisation can help teachers think not only about their own responsiveness and flexibility, but also about generating successful student improvisation and effective collaboration between teachers and students.

Third, thinking of teaching as improvisation may be more productive within teacher education than simply asserting that teachers need to be flexible and responsive.

Telling someone to be responsive is not very useful; professional improvisation is a valuable model because improvisers in jazz and theater are taught exactly how to be flexible and responsive.

Teaching Improvisation as Professional Improvisation For the previously outlined reasons, it is important that we begin to attend explicitly to the improvisational nature of teaching.

Simply becoming aware that teaching is improvisational is not enough, however. When seen from the perspective of constructivist learning theory and the educational demands of the knowledge society, improvisation is not something that is incidental in teaching; it is central, and therefore we need to focus our efforts on doing it expertly.

We need to think of ourselves as professional, rather than incidental, improvisers. Consider what might be gained for the teaching profession if we begin to think of ourselves as professional improvisers.

To begin, seeing ourselves as professional improvisers creates an imperative to take our improvisation seriously, to attend to our successes and failures, and to strategize about how to improvise better.

Further, viewing teaching as an improvisational profession will lead to the development of a body of professional knowledge to support our improvisation.

Established improvisation communities such 34 DeZutter as jazz music and unscripted acting have well-elaborated, shared notions of what constitutes successful improvisation, from which are derived clear learning goals for newcomers and accompanying techniques for helping learners accomplish those goals.

Improv actors have a detailed set of criteria for evaluating the success of a performance. As this list suggests, alongside an elaborated vision of what constitutes successful improv comes a vocabulary that provides a shorthand for talking about the components of that success and for talking about failures.

These things then translate into learning goals for those who are new to the profession. These guidelines reflect the accumulated wisdom of the community about what works to make a satisfying experience for the audience.

And because the guidelines are teachable, they prevent newcomers from having to create from scratch the strategies and skills needed for success.

No one expects novice actors to be good at improv right away. Over its sixty-year Professional Improvisation and Teacher Education 35 history, the improv community has developed a wealth of methods for teaching improv acting, and the great improv teachers such as Paul Sills and Del Close are venerated as much, if not more, than the great performers.

Methods books for teaching improv abound e. Similar types of knowledge can be found in the jazz community; see Berliner, We need a similar body of knowledge in the teaching profession, including a well-elaborated vision of good improvisational teaching, a shared vocabulary, learning goals for new teachers, and accompanying techniques for developing improvisational ability.

One way to make progress toward these ends is to mine the wisdom of other improvisational communities. Several scholars have already begun work of this type.

Improv actors use games and other frameworks as scaffolds for successful improvisational performances. Such structures impose parameters within which the improvisation occurs, and this serves to cut down to a manageable range the amount of improvisation necessary to produce a coherent performance.

Sawyer suggests that teachers need to design classroom activities with a similar idea in mind. Activities need to allow students intellectual space to construct their own knowledge while at the same time scaffolding the construction process.

Sawyer 36 DeZutter also notes that it will be helpful to train teachers in some of the techniques used by theatrical improvisers.

There are a few such efforts currently underway. The work of Sawyer, Donmeyer, and Lobman demonstrates the value in attending to the knowledge for improvisation found in the theater community.

There is also some interesting work using insights from dance improvisation; see Fournier, this volume. However, drawing wisdom from other improvisational professions should not be our only strategy.

As Sawyer notes, the demands of teaching in a K school differ significantly from the demands of creating a performance in the arts.

If we are to advance the ability of the teaching profession to improvise, we will need to develop a vision, a vocabulary, and pedagogical techniques that are specific to teaching.

Indeed, that is where much of the current scholarship on teaching-as-improvisation will likely lead. At the same time, though, we need to engage in a parallel effort that will establish an audience for such scholarship, and extend the conversation about improvisation to others besides education scholars.

We need to take steps to help teachers understand why such scholarship matters, why it is important to understand teaching as improvisational, and why we should strive to improvise well.

Textbooks offer a reasonable proxy for the topics that are included in teacher education classes because to be adopted, a textbook must present the ideas Professional Improvisation and Teacher Education 37 and concepts that teacher educators deem important.

I analyzed fourteen general-methods texts see Table 2. All generalmethods texts texts not focused on a particular grade level or content area were included, except for one text from Cengage that could not be acquired at the time of the study.

Texts devoted only to a single aspect of teaching, such as classroom management, were not included. The textbooks I examined treat constructivism in a variety of ways.

Several e. Others mention constructivism only long enough to link it to other terms or ideas that are used more frequently. Still others e.

It would be reasonable, then, to expect these texts to deal with teacher improvisation as a necessary feature of teaching that accomplishes such aims.

In a discussion of differences between expert and novice teachers, in which they cite Borko and Livingston , see below , Ornstein and Lasley explain, Experts engage in a good deal of intuitive and improvisational teaching.

They begin with a simple plan or outline and fill in the details as the teaching-learning process unfolds. The act of teaching 5th ed. Another text, Frieberg and Driscoll , includes a section on using theatrical improvisation as a teaching technique but does not mention or suggest that improvisation should be an integral part of every teaching process.

In fact, the presence of this section may contribute to an impression that improvisation is not a normal part of teaching, but rather a special technique to be employed only in certain situations.

I then examined the possibility that teaching-as-improvisation is present in these texts, even though the term is not used. Even though all of the texts give at least passing nods to concepts such as teacher flexibility, responsiveness, and in-the-moment revision of plans, the lack of sustained discussion of such issues, accompanied by an emphasis on detailed lesson planning and vignettes of teaching in which the improvisational elements are not made salient, means that readers new to the profession are unlikely to take away the message that teaching is necessarily and always improvisational.

Student reactions may make it necessary or desirable to elaborate on something included in the plan or to pursue something unexpected that arises as the lesson proceeds.

Topics that we might expect to be associated 40 DeZutter with teacher improvisation, such as attending to individual student needs, teaching students with differing rates of learning, and accounting for diverse student backgrounds, tend to be addressed with advice on how lessons should be planned, and that advice rarely includes planning for improvisational teaching.

All of the texts do at least mention that lesson plans must at times be revised on the fly, but there is an absence of sustained discussion about the necessary give-and-take between pre-lesson work and during-the-lesson decision making.

But the vignettes and case studies presented in these books rarely demonstrate the improvisational essence of teaching. Such descriptions also create the sense that the teacher is the only one who is shaping the direction of the lesson, because it is almost never made explicit that the flow of the lesson emerges from collaborative classroom dialogue.

These books do not show pre-service teachers the essential improvisational nature of teaching. And we know that pre-service teachers do not start teacher education programs with improvisational beliefs about teaching.

This is done chiefly by telling the information to the students. In one interesting example of research on this issue, Weber and Mitchell asked children, pre-service teachers, and practicing teachers to draw a picture of a teacher.

Weber and Mitchell concluded that this traditional image was widespread among not only pre-service Professional Improvisation and Teacher Education 41 teachers but most people in our culture p.

Students, if depicted, were shown sitting passively, in orderly rows, eyes on the teacher. This experiment reveals the dominant image of teaching that teacher education students bring with them to their education classes.

Indeed, such transmissionist views have been shown to conflict with the learning of constructivist-based principles of teaching.

It makes sense under the transmission model to depict a teacher speaking in the front of a classroom to a group of silent or invisible students.

It makes far less sense, however, to depict a teacher this way under a constructivist-inspired model of teaching.

From a constructivist perspective, the act of teaching cannot be depicted without including the students in the image, because the intellectual activity of the students is what is important.

Such beliefs often act as a barrier to accurately understanding constructivistinspired approaches to teaching, and will very likely also be a barrier to inferring the improvisational nature of teaching.

From the transmissionist perspective, there is little reason for improvisation in teaching. Rather, planning exactly what the teacher will say and do during a lesson, even down to 42 DeZutter the minute details, seems advisable to ensure that all the important ideas get said and in the right order.

If new teachers understand the value of improvisational teaching to student learning, they are more likely to plan for improvisation instead of planning a script.

If they learn to think critically about the role of improvisation in teaching and to reflect on their own successes and failures in improvisation, they will become better classroom improvisers, and therefore, better teachers.

In addition, such conversations may generate a demand for more scholarly work on teaching as improvisation, which can then be incorporated into teacher education, further advancing the cause of excellence in improvisational teaching.

I would like to see improvisation addressed directly and substantively in forthcoming teacher education textbooks, but in the absence of such discussions, teacher educators should fill in the gaps by exploring the topic with their students.

Bringing Improvisation into Conversations within Teacher Education For guidance on incorporating conversations about improvisation into teacher education, we can turn first to the already well-developed body of literature on addressing teaching beliefs in teacher education.

As suggested by the earlier discussion, the initial step in helping pre-service teachers understand the role of improvisation in teaching will be to address their assumptions about the teaching-learning process, some of which may conflict with the idea that effective teaching involves successful improvisation.

Asking students to articulate and examine their beliefs about teaching helps them be more deliberate learners as they encounter new, challenging ideas, and it sets the stage for the career-long reflective consideration of the teachinglearning process that many teacher education programs strive to foster.

The skillful teacher educator will listen carefully to the notions of teaching that her students express and then find ways to link those notions to the ideas she hopes they will come to understand.

Such activities can be used as opportunities to open conversations about the improvisational nature of teaching as well.

Blumenfeld, Hicks, and Kracjik suggest that lesson-planning activities, which are a mainstay of methods courses, can be an important site for students to articulate and examine beliefs about the relationship between particular pedagogical choices and student learning.

Woolfolk Hoy and Murphy note that having students write philosophies of learning can be a valuable tool for unearthing assumptions.

Students can be asked to revise these at later points in their preparation, and can thereby track the evolution of their beliefs.

Such themes can then be included in the discussions that arise around these activities, so that students not only begin to unearth their assumptions relating to teacher improvisation, but also begin to learn that improvisation is an important issue in teaching.

Programs that address beliefs only briefly or in a piecemeal fashion are unlikely to be effective in moving students toward robust, research-based understandings.

Thus, conversations about the improvisational nature of teaching should be integrated throughout a teacher education program as well, so that teacher education students have multiple, recurring opportunities to reflect on this aspect of their teaching beliefs.

In inviting pre-service teachers to think about teaching as improvisation, teacher educators can expect to encounter certain challenges.

I have mentioned that transmissionist beliefs held by many pre-service teachers are likely to create difficulties for thinking about teaching as improvisation, because teaching understood as transmission seems to require scripting more than improvising.

Lortie makes the point that upon entering a teacher education program, pre-service teachers have had twelve or more years of observing teaching from the vantage point of the student.

As apprentice observers, people gain many images of teachers that they carry into preparation programs, but these images only include the parts of teaching a student can see.

Teacher planning and on-the-fly decision making are mostly invisible to the student, and this masks the nature of teaching as skilled improvisation.

From the student perspective, routines and order are salient, but improvisation is not Labaree, The aim is not just that they understand that teaching is improvisational, but that they begin to think of themselves as professional improvisers who are deliberate about developing and employing improvisational skill.

Attaining this understanding is likely to be difficult, because teacher education students are not likely to have a well-developed sense of what might constitute improvisational excellence or what might be involved in achieving it.

Along with the other authors represented in this book, I argue that teacher educators can make an analogy to other professional improvisational communities, although this will require more than simply pointing out the commonalities between teaching and, for example, theatrical improvisation.

It is not obvious that professional improv performers engage in substantial training and preparation to become successful at their craft.

Therefore, teacher educators might ask students to consider such questions as what might be involved in learning to improvise at a professional level and what kinds of knowledge professional improvisers draw on.

It may even be useful to have students investigate some of the many books available on learning to improvise, and ask them to draw their own analogies between the skills explored in those texts and the skills involved in teaching.

In addition, narrative case studies are a common feature in methods texts. By discussing these examples of teaching with their peers and their professors, education students learn to think analytically about teaching, which is an important step toward becoming a professional educator.

As a part of these conversations, students should be invited to think about improvisation. When discussing their own teaching experiences, students can be asked about the role of improvisation in their teaching, and challenged to consider ways to make their teaching more successfully improvisational.

When discussing observations and case studies, the role of improvisation may be less apparent, and so it may be useful for teacher educators to pose questions that will make this more salient.

For example, a video case study can be paused to ask the viewers what the teacher is likely thinking about at a given moment and how she might respond to different contingencies, or to brainstorm about many possible directions in which the lesson may go depending on student responses.

Cases can also be evaluated in terms of what kinds of improvisational demands were placed on students What sort of knowledge construction opportunities were present?

In addition to including improvisation in discussions of examples of teaching, it should also be included in discussions of lesson planning.

Borko and Livingston established that experienced teachers teach more improvisationally than novices do because experienced teachers have more highly integrated knowledge structures relating to pedagogical strategies and content knowledge.

This finding cautions us that to some degree, improvisational skill may be a function of classroom experience. On the other hand, this work has implications for how we teach new teachers to plan their lessons.

Specifically, it might be valuable for teacher education students to consider what it means to plan to improvise.

Professional Improvisation and Teacher Education 47 In addition, teachers may wish to attend more to the design of activities than to predetermining the flow of a lesson; this would help them attend to what kinds of explorations students will be supported to do.

As constructivist approaches to teaching emphasize, in order to build deep, conceptual understandings, students need opportunities for supported intellectual exploration.

Not only does teaching need to allow space for teachers to respond to evolving student thinking; it must be designed to allow teachers and students to improvise new understandings together.

Teachers need to be willing and effective improvisers, and this means that, as a profession, we must begin to explicitly examine the improvisation that we do.

The authors represented in this book are developing a body of knowledge for expert teaching improvisation that will parallel the kinds of knowledge found in other professional improvisation communities.

But at the same time as this work proceeds, we need to open the conversation about improvisational teaching to our next generation of teachers.

Future teachers will need to embrace improvisation as an important component in their professional work, and think deliberately and analytically about how to improvise better.

The idea that teaching is a form of professional improvisation may be a challenging one for many pre-service teachers, due to implicit transmissionist beliefs that make scripting a lesson seem more desirable than improvisation.

Therefore, it will be important for teacher educators to help future teachers unearth their assumptions about teaching, including those related to improvisation, and to create opportunities for them to develop more robust understandings of the teaching process and of why improvisation is central to it.

References Anderson, L. Sternberg Eds. Blumenfeld, P. Teaching educational psychology through instructional planning.

Bryan, L. Davis, B. Working through the regressive myths of constructivist pedagogy. Donmoyer, R. Pedagogical improvisation.

Fishman, B. Hargreaves, A. Holt-Reynolds, D. Personal history-based beliefs as relevant prior knowledge in course work. What does the teacher do?

Johnstone, K. Labaree, D. Life on the margins. Lobato, J. Initiating and eliciting in teaching: A reformulation of telling. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 36 2 , Lobman, C.

Lortie, D. Folk psychology and folk pedagogy. Torrance Eds. Patrick, H. Renninger, A. Learning as the focus of an educational psychology course.

Richardson, V. The role of attitudes and beliefs in learning to teach. Sikula, T. Guyton Eds.

Constructivist pedagogy. Firsthand learning through intent participation. Emergence in creativity and development. Educating for innovation.

Scardamalia, M. Siegler, R. Simon, M. Reconstructing mathematics pedagogy from a constructivist perspective. Spolin, V. Improvisation for the theater.

Strauss, S. Folk psychology, folk pedagogy, and their relations to subjectmatter knowledge. Torff, B. Horvath, Eds. Tudge, J.

Bruner, Eds. Wideen, M. Windschitl, M. Review of Educational Research, 72 2 , Woolfolk Hoy, A. Teaching educational psychology to the implicit mind.

Under the accountability agenda, teachers are required to measure and test students, to report using mandated standards and systems, and to teach in state sanctioned ways.

Under the creativity agenda, teachers are expected to act effortlessly, fluidly, to take risks, be adventurous, and to develop pedagogy and classroom creativity in order to develop their own knowledge and skills as creative professionals.

They are expected to develop creative learners who can succeed in a twenty-first-century economy that rewards creativity and innovation.

The accountability agenda makes it difficult for teachers to work more creatively. Teachers get overwhelmed by a constant barrage of accountability demands standards, tests, targets, and tables by government.

There is general agreement that governments are increasingly taking control of the teaching profession Alexander, Teachers are expected to perform in specific and regulated ways.

In contrast, the creativity agenda encourages teachers to take risks, be adventurous, and explore creativity themselves. Yet, what constitutes creativity in education remains ambiguous.

Whereas important research conducted a decade ago by Woods and Jeffrey identified how teachers cope with tensions surrounding In R.

The conflict between the creativity and accountability agendas in education causes tensions for teachers given the effect of all the tough talk of standards Ball, There is wide acceptance that teaching is a complex task involving a high degree of professional expertise see Sawyer, this volume.

In the United Kingdom, a government emphasis on creativity in learning has led to an expansion of artist-teacher partnerships.

In these partnerships, working professional artists visit the classroom for a limited time period and work side by side with the full-time teacher.

Partnerships have become a delivery model in education, which offers a forum for creative opportunities.

There is a long history of collaborations between teachers and professional artists in participatory arts activities, both in schools and communities.

Models of practice in partnerships between artists and teachers vary considerably. However, effective partnerships between artists and teachers in schools suggest it is in the act of creativity itself that empowerment lies.

Teaching is a subtle and complex art, and successful teachers, like artists, view their work as a continuing process of reflection and learning.

These partnerships directly benefit students, but they also have the potential to indirectly benefit students by increasing teacher expertise.

For a partnership to work well, either for students or for teacher professional development, Wenger , p.

Under these conditions, a collaborative partnership potentially can develop, where teachers and artists are engaged in a dialogue and are dialogic in their teaching.

For this to happen, they need to have time for thinking, to encourage and maintain ambiguity, and to share understanding concerning what they are doing and what this means within the community Galton, When teachers and artists collaborate, they often have different conceptions concerning the organization of space, material, and time in the classroom.

The visiting artist typically uses a more improvisational, openended approach, whereas the classroom teacher typically uses a more structured style.

Thus, these teacher-artist partnerships provide us with an opportunity to study the teaching paradox in action: How do these dyads resolve this paradox to balance the more unpredictable, improvisational approach of the visiting artist with the more predictable, normative, and accountable style of the teacher?

If this paradox can be resolved, the result would be improved teacher expertise; research tells us how important it is for teachers to alter traditional school boundaries of time and space to allow for unpredictable, rigorous, reflective, and improvisational teaching Jeffrey, This resonates with the notion of Nardone who considered the lived experience of improvisation to be a coherent synthesis of the body and mind engaged in both conscious and prereflective activity.

When teachers and artists work together, particularly over sustained periods, their tacit knowledge and practice can be examined, reflected on, shared, and new practices created.

From the outset of each performance, improvisers enter an artificial world of time in which reactions to the unfolding events of their tales must be immediate.

Furthermore, the consequences of their actions are irreversible. Few experiences are more deeply fulfilling.

My goal is to understand how they resolve this tension to create a shared space for teaching that enables the emergence of improvisational forms of teaching.

What takes them from teaching together, independently and side by side, to coconstructing an emergent pedagogy? I focus on two questions: When is it that artists enable teachers by working in classrooms?

When teachers and artists collaborate, their different conceptions of teaching and different paradigms of expertise must be resolved before they can construct an effective learning environment.

This examination sheds light on the teaching paradox because the visiting artist represents a more creative, improvisational end of the paradox, whereas the classroom teacher represents the more constrained, scripted end.

Artists, in contrast, are stereotypically presented and seen as artists or arts practitioners, professionals involved in cultural production.

The artist in education is frequently an outsider who comes into an education space and acts as a catalyst or challenger of learning and who provides ways of exploring the world which involve more sensory, immersive, and improvisatory rooted ways of working than are customary in classroom settings.

I conclude by generalizing from these specific examples to propose a set of necessary conditions that must be met to resolve the teaching paradox.

Pedagogic Partnerships and Teaching for Creativity For many years, schools have employed visiting professional artists, in music, dance and theater, to work in educational partnerships with teachers in schools.

In the years after this influential document was published, many subsequent government policies and advisory documents have indirectly increased the interest in artist partnerships with artists in schools.

The vision and the hope are that the learning of pupils, pedagogic practices of teachers, and schools as organizations will be changed by educational partnerships and the significance they have in school improvement.

The vision and number of educational partnerships was increased dramatically in the United Kingdom as a result of the policy initiative, Creative Partnerships a, b.

With more than , young people and more than 4, teacher-artist collaborations, partnerships are acknowledged to have great potential to enhance arts education and creative education in schools.

One goal is to help pupils learn more creatively. A second goal is to help teachers teach more creatively; a third is to help schools become more innovative organizations.

A fourth is to forge strong and sustained partnerships between schools and artists. This chapter provides evidence of how the teaching paradox is resolved in these collaborative pedagogic practices between teachers and artists working in partnership in schools.

The vision and hope here, in the light of these educational policy initiatives as well as CCE, ; NCSL, ; QCA, and Schools of Creativity [Creative Partnerships Prospectus for Schools September, ] , are that teachers will better learn how to resolve the teaching paradox: They will be stimulated and supported by sharing the spontaneous and unpredictable nature of working in collaborative practice with artists, where the teacher makes unpremeditated, spur-of-the-moment decisions, where a considerable degree of residual decision making occurs, where the acquired skills that are normally executed as a professional repertoire of teaching strategies are linked up with those of the artists to develop a new way of resolving the teaching paradox between advance planning and the real-time practice of classroom teaching.

Professional Relationships and the Spaces That Enable Teaching for Creativity When artists and teachers collaborate, the full complexity of teaching is affected.

Teachers and artists enter the partnership with different theories, beliefs, practices, questions, visions, and hopes.

Thus the teaching paradox is played out visibly, in the social interaction between these two professionals. There is strong evidence that artists use a more improvisational approach as they engage with students and teachers Loveless, ; Sefton-Green, Galton studied a group of artists with a successful track record of working in schools, not only including artists from traditional disciplines but also practitioners making regular use of various forms of information and communications technology ICT such as digital photographers and filmmakers.

There is no lack of evidence that artists motivate students, but there is little extant research that identifies what teachers learn about teaching while working with artists.

The metaphor of improvisation helps illuminate that creative learning is essentially polyphonic; it evolves not in a single line of action or thought, but in several strands and directions at once, not circumscribed by the tried and traditional, enabling risk to be borne or not, and in the face of this artists can adopt different stances and engage in different collaborative activities with teachers.

Improvisation is characterized by flexible, adaptive, responsive, and generative activity. Teaching, like improvisation, is framed conceptually and ethically, as well as temporally and spatially.

In the variability of preexisting pedagogic and artistic practices, teachers and artists engage in considerable risk taking when they work together.

Improvisational teaching is always negotiating the teaching paradox: It dances between planned, scripted, deliberate, conscious episodes, and opportunistic action that ensures spontaneity by yielding to the flow; its immediacy signifies improvisational characteristics in the synchronous moment-to-moment of creating a new pedagogic practice.

Research shows that visiting artists teach in a more improvisational manner. Can teachers learn from the emergence of these improvisational ways of teaching?

Teachers cultivate and draw on a repertoire of pedagogic strategies. Artists constantly try out new ideas or adapt old ones, often taking calculated risks in the act of teaching.

So, what happens when artists and teachers teach together? What happens in the fusion of their actions and thoughts, both of which are of equal interest to who they are and what they value?

How do these collaborations address the teaching paradox? Expert teachers use routines and activity structures in regulated i.

As the teacher unfolds this with his or her class, over time, perhaps within and beyond the lesson, the artist and teacher reveal a shared understanding of the sequence of improvised episodes.

Given any topic, it seems that individual teachers will choose different ways to introduce and different ways in which to sequence the episodes of teaching, even when they often make decisions about the order in which to cover sections of work, what to miss out, what to emphasize, and so on.

Teachers are often confronted with common misconceptions; their narratives, as interpreted by their students, are often responsible for introducing elements that run contrary to expectations.

For artists, the plot devised and the business of working differently is reflected by their different understandings of what has gone before.

This leads to the development of contextually situated problems and solutions that lead to new forms of creativity.

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